【JP】 Grammar update

I’ve been working on my grammar today using Tae Kim’s Guide to Japanese.
Here’s what I’ve picked up so far.

State-of-Being

  • Declaring something is so using 【だ】. I guess this is mostly used by men, but oh well. You can attach 【だ】 to a noun or な-adjective.

Example:

人+だ » 人だ

学生+だ » 学生だ

元気だ » 元気だ

  • A state of being can also be implied without the use of 【だ】 if the context is obvious.

Conjugating to State-of-Being

  • Attach じゃない to the noun or な-adjective.

Example:

学生+じゃない » 学生じゃない

友達+じゃない » 友達じゃない

Conjugating to past State-of-Being

  • Attach だった to the noun or な-adjective
  • drop い and add かった for negative past tense
  • Paste Tense

Example:

友達だった

がくせいだった

  • Negative Past Tense

Example:

友達じゃなかった

学生じゃなかった

Subject Particles は・も・が

  • は particle generally indicates the subject of a sentence
  • も is essentially a topic particle with the additional meaning of “also”.

Example:

You: ミアは学生? (Is Mia a student?)

Me: うん、 エミも学生。 (Yea, Emi is also a student.)

  • が is the identifier particle that indicates that the speaker wants to identify something unspecified

Example:

私は学生。 (I am a student.)

私が学生。 (I am the one that is a student.)

Adjectives

  • the な-adjective acts essentially like a noun. All conjugation rules for nouns and な-adjectives are the same.
  • the main difference between な-adjectives and nouns is that な-adjectives can directly modify a noun by sticking な between the adjective and the noun

Example:

静かな人 (Quiet person)

きれいな人 ( Pretty person)

  • you can also use them with subject particles

Example:

友だちは新設。 (Friend is kind.)

友達は親切な人だ。 (Friend is a kind person.)

Other random sentences:

ミアは犬が大好きだ! (Mia likes dogs.)

猫が大好きな人、 犬も大好きだ。 (Person who likes cats also like dogs.) *not always true ;D*

  • all い-adjectives end in the hiragana character い. Unlike な-adjectives you do not need to add な to directly modify a noun.

Example:

嫌いな食べ物。 (Hated food.)

おいしい食べ物。 (Tasty food.)

「YOU CAN NEVER ADD THE DECLARATIVE だ TO い-ADJ.」

  • Negative い-adjective conjugation
  • remove い and add くない

Example:
高い » 高くない
高くない » 高くなかった

  • い-adjective exceptions are かっこいい & いい

Example:

いい

Positive » いい / よかった

Negative » よくない / よくなかった

かっこいい

Positive » かっこいい / かっこよかった

Negative » かっこよくない / かっこよくなかった

List of a few な-adjectives

  • 元気 » healthy, feeling fine
  • 好き » like
  • 有名 » famous
  • 静か » silent, quiet
  • 綺麗 » beautiful, clean, tidy
  • 同じ » the same, alike
  • 色々 » various, several
  • 結構 » quite, fairly, well, good, fine
  • 上手 » skill, proficiency
  • 丈夫 » healthy, strong
  • 大切 » important
  • 大丈夫 » safe, all right, OK
  • 大好き » like (a lot), love
  • 賑やか » busy, bustling
  • 暇 » free-time
  • 下手 » unskilled
  • 便利 » convenience, convenient
  • 立派 » fine, handsome, splendid
  • 大変 » very, greatly, serious, hard
  • 真直ぐ » straight, direct, upright

 

And this is where I’m stopping for the night. ^-^

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